In the 1950s, a small but growing cohort of Rock and pop music fans, dissatisfied with the BBC’s output, would listen to Radio Luxembourg, but to some extent and probably not enough to have any impact on the BBC’s monopoly and invariably only at night, when the signal from Luxembourg was stronger. During the post-1964 period, western Europe offshore radio (such as Radio Caroline broadcasting from ships at anchor or abandoned forts) helped to supply the demand for the pop and rock music. The BBC launched its own pop music station, BBC Radio 1, in 1967.
The international broadcasts became highly popular in major world languages. Of particular impact were programmes by BBC World Service, Voice of America, Radio Moscow, China Radio International, Radio France Internationale (RFI), Deutsche Welle (DW), Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL), Vatican Radio and Trans World Radio etc.